ANDROGEN INSENSITIVITY SYNDROME (AIS) & TREATMENT
Definition: What is "Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS)"?
Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) is also called Androgen resistance syndrome. Androgen insensitivity syndrome is a condition wherein patients suffer from a set of disorders related to sexual differentiation, which results in mutation of the genes encoding the androgen receptor. The nature of problems caused by Androgen insensitivity syndrome varies largely according to the sensitivity & structure of abnormal receptor. Almost all types of Androgen insensitivity syndrome involve infertility & undervirilization in persons of both genders. Women with complete Androgen insensitivity syndrome have female appearance even if they have an undescended testes & 46XY karyotype.
Treatment: How to Treat "Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS)"?
The major decision with Androgen insensitivity syndrome is sex of assignment. Parents need to decide if the baby will be a boy or a girl. However, this assignment will depend on various factors, such as response of phallus to testosterone, surgical reconstruction outcome & pubertal development.
People with androgen insensitivity syndrome may develop varying problems due to many distinct mutations. Clinical manifestations are divided into six phenotypes: 1) Complete Androgen insensitivity syndrome is a condition wherein women have complete female appearance, but without a uterus, ovaries & fallopian tubes. They also have testes in the abdomen & develop minimal pubic hair during puberty. 2) Incomplete or Partial Androgen insensitivity syndrome (PAID) is a condition wherein a female has total female appearance but with slightly "virilized" genitalia, sparse androgenic hair & testes in her abdomen. 3) Reifenstein syndrome involves small testes in the scrotum or abdomen, ambiguous genitalia, sparse androgenic hair & gynecomastia during puberty. 4) Infertile male syndrome is a condition wherein a male has a normal male body externally & internally but has reduced sperm production & reduced fertility. They have normal virilization & moderate androgenic hair. 5) Undervirilized fertile male syndrome is where a male has complete male internal & external genitalia, but with a small penis, normal androgenic hair, normal sperm count, normal or reduced fertility & testes in scrotum. 6) x-linked spinal & bulbar muscular atrophy is a condition wherein sufferers have normal male body features & nearly normal fertility. However, they have exaggerated adolescent gynecomastia & adult degenerative muscle disease.